There are 5 major civilizations that had great influences on Mexico. It includes the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Maya, Toltec, and Mexica empires. The Olmec civilization prospered between 1200 BCE and 400 BCE. After the Olmec started to lose power, the Teotihuacan gained authority and ruled from 150 AD to 650 AD. The Teotihuacan built a new economic and political Mexico. By 500 AD, Teotihuacan had developed into one of the largest cities in the world.
The Toltec era began its stature as a political and cultural command during 700 AD. Its empire stretched as far south as Central America. The Mexica, desert people and one of the 7 groups formerly called “Aztecs”, inherited domination after the fall of the Toltec civilization. It continued to expand its political power especially after becoming the ruler of Central Mexico as leader of the Triple Alliance. In 1519, Tenochtitlan, the Mexican capital and future site of modern Mexico City, was the most significant capital in the world with a total population of more than 360,000. The capital city of Tenochtitlan was occupied by Spain in 1521. The Spanish regime lasted for almost 300 years. Mexico was known during that time as “Nueva Espa ña” or “New Spain”. When Napoleon I attacked Spain in 1807, Mexico took advantage of the situation. Through the leadership of a catholic priest named Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Mexico declared independence on September 16, 1810, in the small town of Dolores. Other important personalities that took part in Mexico’s quest for independence include Vicente Guerrero, Agustin de Iturbide, and Jose Maria Morelos. Mexico achieved its sovereignty through the Treaty of Cordoba, signed on August 24, 1821. The first Republic was established immediately after Mexico gained independence. In the 19th century, several presidents, dictators and political figures played important roles, especially during the Mexican-American War, the War of Reform, French Intervention, the Mexican Revolution, and the Cristero War.
A significant part of Mexican culture since the pre-Colombian era, literature has thrived in this diverse nation. From the famous Mesoamerican poet Nezahualcoyotl to the colonial scribes of Juan Ruiz de Alarcon and Juana Ines de la Cruz, and later Jose Vasconcelos, the country’s outstanding literature paints a picture of this colourful country’s past. Music is at the center of Mexican society, with a wide range of genres found throughout the area. From the world-famous Mariachi bands present at all special occasions to some of the regions top DJs performing at lively venues and clubs, it’s difficult to escape pulsating beats in this part of the world. Art has played a major part in Mexican history since the sculptures and great monuments of the early civilizations and tends to be connected to religion and worship. Indigenous and Spanish art heavily influenced the Mexican muralist and social realism movements of the 20th century. Mexico has long been recognized for its high-quality cinema productions, stretching back to the post-WWII days when the country’s movie industry was comparable with Hollywood. In recent years, Mexican film has once again become prominent on the world stage, raising international interest once more.
A large number of languages are spoken in the ethnically diverse country of Mexico, with Spanish being the most popular one. Although today the vast majority of the Mexican population speaks Spanish, the original languages of the country are Amerindian, or indigenous. The origin of many of these indigenous languages is in Mesoamerican, with linguistic data dating back to around 5,000 years ago. Before 2,000 BC, Mesoamerica was in the Archaic period, producing 3 major language families: Mayan, Mixe-Zoquean, and Oto-Manguean. With the rise of the Olmec civilization beginning around 2,000 BC, many people started migrating across the region and taking their languages with them. The Olmec borrowed from the Mixe-Zoquean family, the Oto-Manguean language dispersed into central Mexico, and the Mayan language began to diversify as its speakers migrated north. With the decline of the Olmec civilization came the rise of other civilizations, bringing with them their language families, like Uto-Aztecan, and further developing the other languages. Certain civilizations, like the Aztec, Mixtec, and Zapotec, remained in power and influenced the spoken language within their region of power. Some of those languages continue to be spoken today.
During winter, the “Norte”, a cold wind from the United States, able to cause sudden drops in temperature, can blow, especially in the center-north. Because of this wind, the northern inland areas (and a little less the northern coastal areas), during winter may experience cold waves, especially in hilly and mountainous areas.
In the peninsula of Baja California, practically a continuation of California, the climate is very mild on the west coast, where daytime temperatures range from 19/20 degrees Celsius (66/68 °F) in winter to 24/25 °C (75/77 °F) in summer in the northern part. The sun shines throughout the year, and the rare rains fall from November to March; rainfall totals around 200/250 millimeters (7.8/10 inches) per year. Here too, as in California, a cold current flows, which makes the sea cool and causes a bit of fog, but in return, it provides a lot of sun, little rain and a pleasant climate. However, when the wind blows from the interior, the temperatures can suddenly increase, surpassing 40 °C (104 °F). A city that is located in this area is Tijuana, just south of the border with the United States and a short distance from the greater San Diego area.